Hochschularbeit

Helene Tello: Investigations on Super Fluid Extraction (SFE) with Carbon Dioxide on Ethnological Materials and Objects Contaminated with Pesticides Zurück
Sprache: Original   -   Übersetzung
Seitenübersicht:
Zusammenfassung: The aim of this thesis is to examine and to assess the extraction of pesticides and heavy metal compounds from ethnological objects by using supercritical carbon dioxide from the viewpoint of conservation. First, the use of pesticides in collections with cultural heritage and the risk to health for persons expanded to a national and international level are described here. Secondly, the significance of the use of pesticides on collections in the Ethnological Museum in Berlin and the health hazard for the staff and other persons is described. The current procedures of the cleaning and the decontamination of collections contaminated with pesticides are discussed and the present state of decontamination of cultural heritage is interpreted. Finally the possibilities of the decontamination with supercritical carbon dioxide of ethnological materials and objects in masses are summarized and discussed.

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Schlagworte: ethnological heritage, decontamination, super fluid extraction, supercritical carbon dioxide, pesticides, heavy metal compounds
Inhalt: Acknowledgements 6
1 Introduction 12
2 Approach 13
3 History of pest control of ethnological objects 14
3.1 Sources of pest control 14
3.2 Pest control in German collections 16
3.3 Pest control in European collections 21
3.4 Pest control in U.S. American and Canadian collections 25
3.5 Discussion and assessment 29
4 Damage to collections with pesticides 31
4.1 Damage to German collections 31
4.2 Damage to European collections 32
4.3 Damage to U.S. American and Canadian collections 33
4.4 Discussion and assessment 34
5 Chronology of the use of pesticides on collection items at the
Ethnological Museum in Berlin 34
5.1 Preparations and procedures employed 34
5.1.1 Preparations employed during collection trips in 19th century 35
5.1.2 Preparations from late 19th century until World War II 35
5.1.3 Preparations employed during World War II 42
5.1.4 Preparations employed after World War II until the late 20th century 44
5.1.5 Current use of preparations and procedures 48
5.2 Discussion and assessment 50
6 Current state of contamination with pesticides in the collections of the
Ethnological Museum in Berlin 51
6.1 The pesticides determined and their toxicological properties 53
6.2 Pollution of the indoor air 54
6.3 Concentration of pesticides in layers of settled dust 60
6.4 Concentration of pesticides in selected objects 61
7 Assessment of endangerment to health 65
7.1 Precautionary measures 65
7.2 Policy and guidelines for decontamination 66
8 Procedures for cleaning and decontamination 67
8.1 Procedures for dry-cleaning 67
8.1.1 Suction Techniques 67
8.1.2 Laser-cleaning 69
8.1.3 Thermal procedures 69
8.1.4 Freeze-drying procedures 70
8.1.5 Ultrasonic waves 70
8.1.6 Solid carbon dioxide 71
8.1.7 Supercritical carbon dioxide 71
8.2 Procedures for wet cleaning 71
8.2.1 Cleaning agents 72
8.2.2 Procedure with vacuum extraction and washing 72
8.2.3 Techniques for single objects 73
8.3 Decontamination with supercritical carbon dioxide 73
8.3.1 Properties of supercritical carbon dioxide 74
8.3.2 Diagram of a Super Fluid Extraction (SFE) plant 76
8.3.3 Present use of SFE in industry 77
8.3.4 Current state of decontamination in works of art and cultural heritage 77
9 Selection of ethnological materials and objects 84
9.1 Preliminary considerations 85
9.2 Description of composition and compounds of materials and objects 86
9.3 Description of the condition of materials and objects 88
9.4 Production techniques 88
9.5 Analytical examination of selected materials 88
10 Preparation of objects and materials for experiment 91
10.1 Photographic documentation of samples and reference samples 91
10.2 Analytical determination of pesticides 104
10.3 Preventive and precautionary measures 105
11 Experiment A for characterizing the changes in materials in a 10 L
high-pressure extraction (HDE) plant for scaled-up experiments 106
11.1 Process diagram of the plant 106
11.2 Parameters during experiment 107
11.3 Course of experiment A with a 10L plant 108
11.4 Interpretation of test results 110
11.4.1 Visual evaluation 110
11.4.2 Microscopic examination 113
11.4.3 Analytical investigations 115
11.5 Discussion of the results 121
11.5.1 Evaluation of the susceptibility of materials and objects to extraction
with SC-CO2 in a high-pressure plant for scaled-up experiments 121
11.5.2 Potential measures to prevent changes in materials 122
11.5.2.1 Exclusion of unsuitable objects before the process 123
11.5.2.2 Prior treatment with film former 123
11.5.2.3 Prior treatment with cyclododecane 123
11.5.2.4 Change of parameters during the procedure 124
11.5.3 Regenerative treatments after changes of materials 124
11.5.3.1 Recirculation of lipophile substances 124
11.5.3.2 Restoration of the bonding 125
11.5.3.3 Restoration of gloss 125
12 Experiment B for determining the level of elimination of pesticides in a 150 mL high-pressure view cell 126
12.1 Process diagram of the 150 mL laboratory plant 126
12.2 Process parameters 127
12.3 Course of experiment B with a 150 mL laboratory plant 127
12.4 Interpretation of test results 128
12.4.1 Visual evaluation 128
12.4.2 Microscopic examination 130
12.4.3 Determination of the amount of pesticides and the level of decontamination 132
12.5 Discussion of the results 134
13 Conclusions 136
14 Indices 141
14.1 Index of illustrations 141
14.2 Index of Sources of Illustrations 146
14.3 Index of Tables 150
15 Bibliography 152
16 Appendix 179
17 Declaration 207

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weitere Angaben:
  • Hochschule:  Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft Berlin
  • Art der Arbeit:  Diplomarbeit
  • Erstprüfer:  Prof. Dr. Matthias Knaut
  • Zweitprüfer:  Prof. Dr. Achim Unger
  • Abgabedatum:  2006
  • Sprache:  Englisch
  • Seitenzahl:  207
  • Abbildungen:  65
 
Kontakt:
 
Helene Tello
Arnimallee 27
Staatliche Museen Berlin - Ethnologisches Museum
14195  Berlin
Deutschland
h.tello@[Diesen Teil loeschen]smb.spk-berlin.de

 
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Creative Commons Lizenzvertrag Dieses Werk steht unter einer Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 Deutschland Lizenz.
DOI (Digital Object Identifier) http://dx.doi.org/10.5165/hawk-hhg/124
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